Guía de medicamentos genéricos

Guía de medicamentos genéricos

Generic alternatives and generic equivalents to brand-name medications may help patients save money. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) states that it ensures the safety and effectiveness of the generic drugs it approves.1 According to the FDA, a generic drug is identical, or bioequivalent, to a brand-name drug and is “required to have the same active ingredient, strength, dosage form and route of administration as the brand-name product.”2 A generic alternative is not a direct generic for a particular branded medication, but in most cases it is in the same therapeutic class as the brand. Alternative drugs produce similar clinical outcomes and often have similar side-effect profiles.

Opciones de medicamentos genéricos

Consulte la tabla que figura más abajo para obtener una lista de los medicamentos de marca más usados y sus versiones genéricas correspondientes y alternativas de venta sin receta (OTC, siglas en inglés). When a generic equivalent to a brand is listed below, this format is used: name of equivalent generic followed by brand name in parentheses [e.g., benazepril (Lotensin)]. También puede descargar una versión para imprimir de la tabla.

Clase terapéutica Productos de marca Alternativas genéricas y de venta sin receta (OTC, siglas en inglés)
Inhibidores de la enzima de conversión de la angiotensina (ACE) Accupril, Aceon, Altace, Capoten, Lotensin, Mavik, Monopril, Prinivil, Univasc, Vasotec, Zestril benazepril (Lotensin), captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), fosinopril (Monopril), lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril), moexipril (Univasc), perindopril (Aceon), quinapril (Accupril), ramipril (Altace), trandolapril (Mavik)
Bloqueadores de los receptores de angiotensinas II (ARB) Atacand, Avapro, Benicar, Cozaar, Diovan, Edarbi, Hyzaar, Micardis, Teveten candesartan (Atacand), eprosartan (Teveten), irbesartan (Avapro), losartan (Cozaar), telmisartan (Micardis), valsartan (Diovan)
Angiotensin II receptor antagonist/combinations Atacand HCT, Avalide, Benicar HCT, Diovan HCT, Exforge, Exforge HCT, Micardis HCT, Teveten HCT candesartan/HCTZ (Atacand HCT), eprosartan/HCTZ (Teveten HCT), irbesartan/HCTZ (Avalide), losartan/ HCTZ (Hyzaar), telmisartan/HCTZ (Micardis HCT), valsartan/amlodipine (Exforge), valsartan/amlodipine/HCTZ (Exforge HCT), valsartan/HCTZ (Diovan HCT)
Antibióticos Augmentin, Augmentin ES, Augmentin XR, Avelox, Cipro, Levaquin, Zithromax amoxicillin/clavulanate (Augmentin, Augmentin ES, Augmentin XR), azithromycin (Zithromax), ciprofloxacin (Cipro), levofloxacin (Levaquin), moxifloxacin (Avelox)
Anticoagulantes Arixtra, Coumadin, Eliquis, Jantoven, Lovenox, Pradaxa, Savaysa, Xarelto enoxaparin injection (Lovenox), fondaparinux injection (Arixtra), warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven)
Antidepresivos Celexa, Cymbalta, Effexor XR, Fetzima, Irenka, Khedezla, Lexapro, Marplan, Paxil, Paxil CR, Pristiq, Prozac, Sarafem, Savella, Wellbutrin, Wellbutrin XL, Viibryd bupropion (Wellbutrin), bupropion XL (Wellbutrin XL), citalopram (Celexa), desvenlafaxine (Pristiq), duloxetine (Cymbalta), escitalopram (Lexapro), fluoxetine (Prozac), fluvoxamine (Luvox), fluvoxamine CR (Luvox CR), nefazodone (Serzone), paroxetine (Paxil), paroxetine CR (Paxil CR), sertraline (Zoloft), venlafaxine (Effexor), venlafaxine XR (Effexor XR)
Agentes antieméticos Anzemet, Compro, Emend, Kytril, Reglan, Tigan, Zofran, Zofran ODT, Zuplenz granisetron (Kytril), metoclopramide (Reglan), ondansetron (Zofran, Zofran ODT, Zuplenz), prochlorperazine (Compro), trimethobenzamide (Tigan)
Medicamentos antiepilépticos Aptiom, Banzel, Carbatrol, Depakote, Depakote ER, Diamox, Epitol, Felbatol, Fycompa, Gabitril, Keppra, Keppra XR, Lamictal, Lamictal XR, Lyrica, Neurontin, Oxtellar XR, Potiga, Sabril, Qudexy XR, Tegretol, Topamax, Trileptal, Trokendi XR, Vimpat, Zonegran acetazolamide (Diamox), carbamazepine (Carbatrol, Epitol, Tegretol, Tegretol XR), divalproex (Depakote), divalproex extended release (Depakote ER), felbamate (Felbatol), gabapentin (Neurontin), lamotrigine (Lamictal), lamotrigine ER (Lamictal XR), levetiracetam (Keppra), levetiracetam extended-release (Keppra XR), oxcarbazepine (Trileptal), tiagabine (Gabitril), topiramate (Topamax), valproic acid (Depakote), zonisamide (Zonegran)
Antimicóticos Ancobon, Diflucan, Grifulvin V, Gris- Peg, Lamisil, Nizoral, Terbinex, VFend fluconazol (Diflucan), flucitosina (Ancobon), griseofulvina (Grifulvin V, Gris-Peg), ketoconazol (Nizoral), nistatina (Mycostatin, Nystop), terbinafina (Lamisil), voriconazol (VFend)
Agentes antiglaucoma Azopt, Betagan, Betimol, Cosopt, Istalol, Lumigan, Ocupress, Rescula, Timoptic, Travatan, Travatan Z, Trusopt, Xalatan, Zioptan Betaxolol (Betoptic), bimatoprost (Lumigan), carteolol (Ocupress), dorzolamide (Trusopt), dorzolamide/timolol (Cosospt), latanoprost (Xalatan), levobunolol (Betagan), metipranolol (OptiPranolol), timolol (Betimol, Istalol, Timoptic), travoprost (Travatan)
Antihistamínicos Allegra OTC, Allegra-D OTC, Clarinex, Clarinex-D, Claritin OTC, Claritin-D OTC, Xyzal, Zyrtec OTC, Zyrtec-D OTC desloratadine (Clarinex), fexofenadine OTC (Allegra OTC), fexofenadine/ pseudoephedrine (Allegra-D OTC), levocetirizine (Xyzal), loratadine OTC (Claritin OTC), loratadine/pseudoephedrine OTC (Claritin-D OTC), cetirizine OTC (Zyrtec OTC), cetirizine/ pseudoephedrine OTC (Zyrtec-D OTC)
Agentes antimigraña Alsuma, Amerge, Axert, Frova, Imitrex, Maxalt, Relpax, Sumavel, Treximet, Zomig almotriptan (Axert), naratriptan (Amerge), rizatriptan (Maxalt), sumatriptan (Imitrex), zolmitriptan (Zomig)
Antiplaquetario Aggrenox, Brilinta, Effient, Plavix clopidogrel (Plavix), dipyridamole/aspirin (Aggrenox), ticlopidine (Ticlid)
Agentes antiparkinson Apokyn, Azilect, Comtan, Eldepryl, Neupro, Mirapex, Parlodel, Requip, Requip XL, Stalevo, Tasmar benztropine* (Cogentin), bromocriptine (Parlodel, Cycloset), cabergoline (Dostinex), entacapone (Comtan), pramipexole (Mirapex), ropinirole (Requip), ropinirole extended release (Requip XL), tolcapone (Tasmar), trihexyphenidyl* (Artane)
Antirretrovirales Combivir, Emtriva, Epivir, Epzicom, Retrovir, Trizivir, Videx, Viramune, Zerit, Ziagen abacavir (Ziagen), abacavir/lamivudine/zidovudine (Trizivir), didanosine (Videx), lamivudine (Epivir), lamivudine/zidovudine (Combivir), nevirapine (Viramune), stavudine (Zerit), zidovudine (Retrovir)
Antiespasmódicos Detrol, Detrol LA, Ditropan, Ditropan XL, Enablex, Gelnique, Myrbetriq, Oxytrol, Pamine, Sanctura, Sanctura XR, Toviaz, Vesicare flavoxate (Urispas), oxybutynin (Ditropan), oxybutynin ER* (Ditropan XL), tolterodine (Detrol), tolterodine ER (Detrol LA), trospium (Sanctura)
Antivirales Copegus, Cytovene, Famvir, Flumadine, Sitavig, Valcyte, Valtrex, Zovirax acyclovir (Zovirax), famciclovir (Famvir), ganciclovir (Cytovene), ribavirin (Copegus), rimantadine (Flumadine), valacyclovir (Valtrex), valganciclovir (Valcyte)
Agentes para la hiperplasia prostática benigna (BPH) Avodart, Cardura*, Cardura XL*, Flomax, Hytrin*, Jalyn, Proscar, Rapaflo, Uroxatral alfuzosin SR (Uroxatral), doxazosin* (Cardura), finasteride (Proscar), tamsulosin (Flomax), terazosin* (Hytrin)
Bloqueadores beta Bystolic, Coreg, Coreg CR, Inderal LA, Lopressor, Tenoretic, Tenormin, ToprolXL, Zebeta, Ziac atenolol (Tenormin), atenolol/clortalidona (Tenoretic), bisoprolol (Zebeta), bisoprolol/HCTZ (Ziac), carvedilol (Coreg, Coreg CR), metoprolol (Lopressor), metoprolol XL (Toprol-XL), propranolol LA (Inderal LA)
Bisphosphonates Actonel, Atelvia, Boniva, Fosamax alendronate (Fosamax), ibandronate (Boniva), risedronate (Actonel)
Bloqueadores de canales de calcio Adalat CC, Caduet, Calan, Cardene, DynaCirc CR, Lotrel, Norvasc, Sular, Plendil amlodipine (Norvasc), amlodipine/benazepril (Lotrel), amlodipine/atorvastatin (Caduet), diltiazem (Cardizem, Cartia XT, Dilt-CD, Tiazac), felodipine (Plendil), isradipine (DynaCirc), nicardipine (Cardene), nifedipine (Adalat CC), nisoldipine (Sular), verapamil (Calan)
Inhibidores de colinesterasa/N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA) Aricept, Exelon, Namenda, Razadyne, Razadyne ER donepezil (Aricept), galantamine (Razadyne), galantamine ER (Razadyne ER), rivastigmine (Exelon)
Corticosteroides nasales Beconase AQ, Flonase, Nasarel, Nasonex, Nasacort AQ, QNASL, Rhinocort Aqua, Veramyst, Zetonna budesonide (Rhinocort Aqua), fluticasone (Flonase OTC), flunisolide (Nasarel), triamcinolone (Nasacort OTC)
Opioids Abstral, Actiq, Avinza, Butrans, Demerol, Dilaudid, Dolophine, Duragesic, Embeda, Exalgo, Fentora, Hysingla ER, Ibudone, Kadian, MS Contin, Opana ER, Oramorph SR, Oxycontin, Reprexain, Subutex, Suboxone, Zohydro ER buprenorphine (Buprenex, Subutex, Suboxone), butorphanol (Stadol), codeine sulfate, fentanyl transdermal patch (Duragesic), hydromorphone (Dilaudid), levorphanol (Levo-Dromoran), meperidine (Demerol), methadone (Dolophine), morphine sulfate (Avinza), morphine sulfate ER (MS Contin/Oramorph SR), oxycodone (Oxycontin), oxymorphone ER (Opana ER), tramadol (Ultram)
Agentes oftálmicos: antihistamínicos Bepreve, Elestat, Emadine, Lastacaft, Naphcon, Optivar, Pataday, Patanol, Pazeo azelastine (Optivar), epinastine (Elestat), ketotifen (Zaditor OTC), naphazoline (Naphcon)
Agentes oftálmicos: NSAID Acular, Acular LS, Acular PF, Acuvail, Bromday, Ilevro, Nevanac, Ocufen, Prolensa, Voltaren, Xibrom bromfenac (Xibrom), diclofenac (Voltaren), flurbiprofen (Ocufen), ketorolac (Acular/LS/PF)
Inhibidores de la bomba de protones Aciphex, Dexilant, Nexium, Prevacid, Prevacid SoluTab, Prilosec, Protonix, Zegerid esomeprazole (Nexium OTC), lansoprazole (Prevacid OTC), omeprazole (Prilosec OTC), omeprazole/ sodium bicarbonate (Zegerid OTC), pantoprazole (Protonix), rabeprazole (Aciphex)
Sedantes hipnóticos† Ambien, Ambien CR, Belsomra, Edluar, Intermezzo, Lunesta, Restoril, Rozerem, Silenor, Sonata eszopiclone (Lunesta), temazepam (Restoril), trazodone (Desyrel), zaleplon (Sonata), zolpidem (Ambien), zolpidem CR (Ambien CR)
Estatinas Crestor, Lescol, Lescol XL, Lipitor, Livalo, Mevacor, Pravachol, Vytorin, Zocor atorvastatin (Lipitor), fluvastatin (Lescol, Lescol XL), lovastatin (Mevacor), pravastatin (Pravachol), simvastatin (Zocor)
Estimulantes Adderall, Adderall XR, Aptensio XR, Concerta, Daytrana, Focalin XR, Vyvanse, Zenzedi dextroamphetamine salts extended-release (Adderall and Adderall XR), methylphenidate (Concerta)

*Pueden no ser apropiados para personas a partir de los 65 años; † indicados solo para usar durante un breve período.

Tenga en cuenta: la información que aquí se proporciona no incluye una lista exhaustiva de contraindicaciones, restricciones ni precauciones recomendadas sobre medicamentos para todos los pacientes.

Referencias:

1. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, "Your generic drug is safe and effective. And we've got the results to prove it,"

http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/ResourcesForYou/Consumers/BuyingUsingMedicineSafely/UnderstandingGenericDrugs/ucm173738.htm, accessed Jan. 20, 2016.

2. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, "Facts about Generic Drugs,"

http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/ResourcesForYou/Consumers/BuyingUsingMedicineSafely/UnderstandingGenericDrugs/ucm167991.htm, accessed Jan. 19, 2016.